Sunday, September 15, 2019

Violence in Football

Violence in football We all know that violence comes into sports. Aggression and sport have gone together as long as sports have been around. Violence is a part of sports, no matter how much the professional associations deny the fact. Professional football is commonly known as favorite pastime of many people. Each week millions of TV viewers watch their teams score touchdowns, kick field goals, and win games.The fans of professional sports are expecting more from the players, and when they feel that the performance from their team is inadequate, they get violent. Most people know of the incidents that occur from European and South American football games. The fans of these games have fights regularly over arguments that are provoked from one team winning and one team losing. Football players aren't any better but are a little different when it comes to why they are paid so much.They have a lot more at stake when they go out on to the field. They have to consider the possibility of g etting injured at any time because of the violent nature of the sport. They are paid to be big, mean, fast, and ruthless out on the field against men just as big and ruthless as themselves. As football has grown wider, it has also increased the violence in the game. In the last few years, professional football experienced an increase in player injuries due to game related violence.Unfortunately, there are also incidents of injuries, most of which are sustained in a normal course of the game; but there are also those which occur due to unnecessary, and at times, intentional violence. In my opinion there is too much aggression and too much focus on that aggression concerning sport. Sport should be regulated more strictly to those who break the rules. The National Football League has yet to address or attempt to remedy the situation.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Advertising and Young Age Children Essay

Of all the â€Å"Big ideas† that have changed how we live in the world only one has achieved total supremacy. Its overwhelming and compulsive allure rob its followers of reason and good sense (Van Boven, 2005). It has created unthinkable unsustainability and inequalities among countries, which now pose a stronger threat to human survival than any other phenomena previous(Assadourian et. al, 2010). It is now more powerful than any religion, reaching into every corner of the western world; this monstrosity of an idea is â€Å"consumerism†. It holds the mentalitythat we should all actively be trying to consume more everyday and every year, with the more we consume leading to better lives and greater happiness. However as we witness the rise in social problems such as child obesity, crime and psychological disorders in the western world we must consider if there is a link, and as numerous studies have now shown the relationship is substantial (Wilkinson and Pickett, 2009). A new â€Å"Big Idea† involving a cultural shift must take place converting people to sustainability and reduction ofconsumption before it is too late for us, and more importantly the environment (Skinner, 1976). Reports now show we are dangerously close to the 2 degree Celsius increase in temperature that will push us over the edge of climate re-stabilization(Meinshausenet al, 2009). Global efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainability such as the Kyoto protocol are in place however the central problem of consumerism is not being addressed. The next generation will grow up in a world where all they know is how to buy. We are steadily loosing the basic skills that have assured human survival to this day. All our children are learning is how to get the best bargains at Tesco and have life aspirations centered on money and possessions. If consumerism is to be reduced we must promote other substitutesamong the youth and at the very least reduce the current impact of consumerism on their development. Children as targets From a consumerist point of view children are the perfect customers, they have no previous appraisal of other products, they are impulsive and will be loyal for life if hooked young. They are the most susceptible to advertising and promotion and most interested in new products. Children now account directly for an estimated $36 billion in sales annually in the USA, with their indirect purchasing power accompanied by the so called â€Å"nag-factor† (Zelizer, 2002) reaching over $290 billion of economic spending (McNeal, 1992). This is not a coincidence, but a direct result of intense advertising and co existing problems of a consumer society. For example with over 70% of mothers now working more and more, consumer tasks are falling to the children.It is now estimated that by age 10, the average child makes over five trips a week to a shop or shopping center (McNeal 1992). And with over $1 billion being spent every year on child advertising and an additional $10 billion on promo tion in the USA alone, these children have more purchasing power than ever. Over the last decade there has been a dramatic shift in the age of children which marketers target resulting in the creation of the â€Å"Tweens†. From the age of 9 to 14 years children are now considered to be midway between childhood and adolescence and unlike other generations acquisition and accumulation of goods has become a preoccupying behavior (Goldberg, 2003). At this age children are still developing in all aspects cognitively, physically, emotionally, socially most importantly they are gaining values and worldviews. With the new preoccupation of consumerism at this young age children are becoming concerned with material status and money, holding them as central values. Before the age of 8 children do not posses the necessary level of cognitive functioning to understand the persuasive aim of advertising and as a result are under treat from the information received as it causes them to make unhealthy choices about themselves and their relationships. At this age they are still relatively unaware of others perceptions and so are dominated by a self-centered focus (Kilby, 1993). There viewof materialism is therefore a very simplistic one of â€Å"I want this†, â€Å"buy me this†, but as children develop this view becomes more complex as material objects take on meaning and the achieving of these goals become an priority. This view â€Å"you are what you buy† hashugeimplications for the child’s individual development and how they interact with their environment throughout life. Kranner and Gomes (1995) found that advertisements made children feel deeply inadequate unless they had certain products. They suggested this not only affects their self-esteem but also is likely to encourage negative behaviors such as stealing to obtain such goods. The views and values of today’s youth are very different than the generation previous. Postman (1994) pointed out how childhood is not an immutable phenomenon but simply a sociocultural creation, which just as its been created can be undone. He argued that advertising and marketing of products once aimed at older teens to younger and younger children is leading to the disappearance or at least alteration of childhood. Effects of advertising on children The effects of childhood materialism are still a relatively new area of study however its impact is starting to be seen as children are becoming impacted at a younger age. Childhood obesity has become commonplace in many western countries, kids are now smoking, drinking and taking drugs younger than never before, and they are suffering from more emotional and mental health problems than any generation previous (Schor, 2004). These findings highlight the change that has occurred over the last 20 years with the wellbeing of youth dramatically declining.Schor (2004) found connections between increased consumerism and anxiety, fear, happiness, depression and social withdrawal. He found continually that consumerism came first and then the suffering followed, not the other way around like some try to suggest. Many studies have now shown that this heightened focus on materialism changeschildren’s values and worldviews. Langer (2005) stated, â€Å"Global commercial culture, is an important source of symbolic material for children as they put together their concept of self†. Children now define themselves through material possessions, as opposed to ethical views or community values. Skafte (1989) demonstrated the affects consumerism has on children’s concepts. He showed a group of â€Å"tweens† a picture of a youth who was either poor or wealthy and asked them what they thought of the person. The wealthier youth was perceived as being more intelligent, getting better grades and making friends more easily. In a later study Dittmar& Pepper, (1994) replicated this using short written paragraphs describing either a rich or poor youth through consumer goods. The richer youth described as having more material possession was also perceived by the â€Å"tweens† as being more hard working, intelligent and successful, but less warm. The extent to which materialism and consumer goods are seen by these youths to be central to a person’s success in all other aspects of life is quite revealing, showing us how ‘stuff’ now dominates over any other trait. The physical health of children is also greatly affected as children growing up in consumer cultures have relatively sedimentary lifestyles, leading to the problem of obesity and often unhappiness (Klanie, 2005). Others argue that advertising and the wide availability of electronic media have taken the power of control away from the parents about what their children learn. The dangerous adult world (particularly sex drugs and violence) is openly available for viewing by minors. All the evidence points to the conclusion that the valuing of wealth over other things is making children less healthy both physically and mentally (Kasser& Ryan, 1993). This is a case for public concern as its affects are filtering up the population as children who watch more TV, movies and videos are shown to have poorer school performance yet be over focused on wealth and consumer goods (Rideout, Foehr, Roberts &Brodie, 1999) creating a gap in expectations and reality. Research has also shown that parents transmit their values to their children(Carlosn&Grossbart, 1988), so if this generation grows up not valuing family and the welfare of the environment and society then the next generation is unlikely to either. For example just as the children of the great depression of the 1930’s related to money in a certain way, usually being very cautious of it, todays youth will irrespectively act in the opposite way becoming carefree and unknowing to the act of â€Å"delayed aquisition† (Gorn, Peracchio, Bamossy, 2003). This is beginning to be seen in the huge level of individual house hold debtacross the western world as people wish to obtain the same level of wealth as everyone else around them without the correct access of means to do so. It is therefore vital that this orientation towards consumerism in youth is addressed through public policycreating a culture shift. Howconsumerist views can be changed. In order for consumerism to be reduced the mentality and views surrounding consumerism must be altered. From birth the hundreds of advertisements and marketing campaigns now shape us to hold the mentalityto attain â€Å"stuff† which in return will shape who we are and bring happiness. La piere (1934) concluded that for change to take place three elements were needed, the person must feel they can do it, have access to memories of action and feel that by not doing anything they are damaging themselves. Under this assumption education and awareness are not enough, they may be helpful in teaching people the dangers of over consumption but will not convince them they can do anything about it or give them access to memories of action. Therefore actions on behalf of the policy makers and educators are vital in making people act and creating change. Under the policy of the American Psychological Association (APA) it aims to work to â€Å"mitigate the causes of human suffering, improve conditions of both the individual and society† and â€Å"Help the public in developing informed judgments†(Commercail Alert, 1999). Over the last 20 years there has been a growing amount of research done in the area of youth and advertising much of which has concentrated on how to exploit children’s emotions to increase consumption. Corporations use psychological findings on children’s needs, cognitive abilities, changing attitudes, and relationships with parents to sell their products (Youth Marketing Services, 2004). Thework of Psychologists in these corporations needs to be carefully monitored. The APA has now made recommendations and now research and investigations must concentrate on helping to counter act â€Å"the potential harmful effects of advertising on children, particularly children ages 8 and younger who lack the cognitive ability to recognize advertisings persuasive intent†(Dittmann, 2004, p.58). By changing how advertising is conducted we can change the message of consumerism being forced upon young children and hopefully reduce consumerism as a result. First and foremost for this to occur Psychologists’ must stay informed, knowing about the relationship between a consumer culture and psychological disturbance (De Angelis, 2004). This will better equip them to deal with questions placed to them, dealing with clients and corporations. Being able to communicate effectively with the greater public and corporations helps keep the public informed to the type of research being done, removing the perception of deception and also enables parents to teach their children how to not fall victim to the commercial culture (Kramer, 2006). By using innovative means of reaching out to the community through schools, policy and counter advertising we can begin to rebuild a level of trust between psychology and the public, whist on the other hand teach the greater population to be wiser consumers and protect their children from its dangers. This could be implemented through systems already in place, for example â€Å"Tidy towns† in which Irish towns and cities compete for the title of â€Å"Tidy town†. A further dimension of sustainability could be added to this, in which town allotments, community trade and car pooling are also rewarded. Schools remain key in the reduction of consumerism as they have long been linked to advertising and marketing (Spring, 2003). The development of a curriculum in which children learn about the persuasive nature of advertising and the risks of over consumption in all areas of life will work to bring such issues to their attention. This is somewhat in place in Ireland with the green schools initiative where school children are encouraged to recycle, compost and plant in their local area with the goal of attaining a green flag. This brings environmentally friendly ideas into action and uses a level of competition to make it more emotive. Also teaching elders about the harmful effects of consumerist aspirations and how they are developed could also help. However there needs to be a removal of all commercial advertising in schools as this should be one place children are free from the bombarding messages(Kramer, 2006). Universities and schools are natural sources of ideas, energy, and info rmation, which should not consist of product placements but items that promote creativity and humanistic values. There are now plans in place to change the laws and governmental policies surrounding child advertising. Up until 1990 there were laws in place prohibiting the direct advertisement to children under a certain age however with the realization of its benefits to sales in the 90’s it was abolished. Now with APA’s proposal on the ethical implications of child advertising hopefully it will be illegal to advertise to children under the age of 8 due to their incapability of understand its intentions (Dittmann, 2004). Psychologists can also help to reduce the problem of consumerism by using their skills to develop advertisements that counter act the messages of consumerism. There should be public service ads, such as for road safety (which have reduced road deaths from 640 in 1972 to just 376 in 2002 (Road Safety Authority, 2012). They could concentrate on alternative sources for self-esteem and peer acceptance, such as showing kindness or humor. They could also promote the values and rewards that can come from family and community interaction such as volunteering or participation in sport (Easterling, Miller, & Weinberger, 1995). These alternative messages of social orientation could shift the future goals of the youth and alter their values away from materialistic items, therefore protecting them from dangers of consumerism and reducing the world’s consumption. Conclusion We can see the harmful affects consumerism is having on our environment as we exhaust our natural resources and pollute those we have left, as we come dangerously close to the â€Å"tipping point† (Lenton et al, 2008). The only way to resolve this global problem is to act now, the resolution starts with us as individuals highlighting the heavy implication of present detrimental government policies. This generation must put in place the tools that are needed to ensure the survival of the planet. At present we are doing the opposite in creating a more consumerist world through our children. We must act now to educate them to the faults of how we live and create a world in which we can exist without the false comfort of consumerism. References Assadourian, E. (2010).Editing Out Unsustainable Behavior. State of theWorld: Transforming Cultures, From Consumerism to Sustainability. Newton & Co: New York Commercial Alert.(1999). Letter to Richard Suinn, PhD, president of the American Psychological Association, RE: The use of psychology to exploit and influence children for commercial purposes. http:/www.commercailalert.org/index.php/category_id/1/subcategory_id/21/article-id/68. De Angelis, T. (2004).Consumerism and its discontents.Monitor on psychology, 35(6), 52-54. Dittmar, H.,& Pepper, L. (1994). To have is to be: Materialism and person perception in working-class and middle class British adolescents. Journal of Economic Psychology, 15, 233-251. Dittmann, M. (2004). Protecting children from advertising: APA’s Council of Representatives supports task force’s call for stricter regulations on ads geared to kids. Monitor on psychology, 35(6), 58-59. Easterling, D., Miller, S., & Weinberger, N. (1995). Environmenta l consumerism: A process of children’s socialization and families’ re-socialization. Psychology & Marketing, 12, 531-550. LaPiere, R. T. (1934). Attitudes vs. Actions.Social Forces, 13(2), 230-237. Lemish, D. (2007). Children and Television: A Global Perspective. Blackwell: New York. Lenton, T., Held, H., Kriegler, E. et al. (2008). Tipping elements in the Earth’s climate system.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 1786-1793. Gorn, G. J., Peracchio, L. A., Bamossy, G. (2003). Understanding materialism amoung youth. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3), 278-288. Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N.Hare, W., Raper, S. C. B.,Frieler, K., Knutti, R.,Frame, D. J., &Allen, M. R. (2009). Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2  °C.Nature, 458, 1158-1162. McNeal, J. U. (1992). Kids as consumers: A handbook of marketing to children.New York: Lexington. Kasser, T.,& Ryan, R. M. (1993). A dark side of the American dream: Corr elates of financial success as a central life aspiration. Journal of personality and social Psychology, 65, 410-422. Kramer, J. B. (2006). Ethical analysis and recommended action in response to the dangers

Friday, September 13, 2019

The history and the future of GPS Research Paper - 1

The history and the future of GPS - Research Paper Example Another series of GPS Block III is under development process which would be able to give more powerful signals and better (PNT). The Global Positioning System provides information related to time and location. It is a satellite navigation system which works well in all weather conditions on and close to the earth (Global Positioning System). It is owned and maintained by the United States of America and serves in the PNT i.e. positioning, navigation and timing. GPS has played vital role in modernizing the Air Traffic System and it has benefitted the military, army, civil and commercial users all around the world. The whole system is basically divided into three major segments including Space segment, Control segment and User segment. The first two are developed and operated by the US Air Force (GPS overview). The space segment consists of a group of satellites which form a particular shape in the space and transmit radio signals to the users. At least 24 satellites are available in the space 95% of the time (Space segment). The control segment represents all the ground facilities that monitor the satellites, analyze their data and keep a check on their performance (control segment). The user segment is used to calculate the user’s three dimensional position and time by GPS receiver equipment which receives the information from the satellites and transmit it to the GPS receiver device (user segment). GPS was developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and started its operations in 1994. The previous navigation systems had some limitations and drawbacks which actually gave rise to the creation of GPS. The project was developed in 1973 by the unification of ideas from the previously working navigation systems (National Research Council U.S.). Originally it ran with 24 satellites. The first experimental GPS I satellite was launched in 1978 and by 1985 ten more satellites were

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Design house partnerships at Concept Design Services Case Study

Design house partnerships at Concept Design Services - Case Study Example 432). Ensuring effective management in the company ensured that the supply chains were efficient. This occurred by incorporating various changes that concerns operations management such as information technology and the internet. Operations management has played a fundamental role in transforming CDS to a successful business via use of creativity. Operations management is a challenging venture thus triggers creativity in the process of coping with those challenges (Gupta et al. 434). Through operations management, CDS achieved the status of a business- business organization from the former condition of business-consumer. The company incorporated partnerships which boosted the condition of her designs for products and services. The company has risen to the top via operations management, where its revenues have increased in a tremendous manner. It has improved its products from cheap moldings with low value to those designed in astounding styles attractive to customers, and of suitable value (Gupta et al. 436). Experience in operations management is vital in organizations where similar skills are transferable to related organizations. An example is the case of CDS where an incoming manager provided skills to transform the company to that producing ‘concept’ product. The manager integrated skills that relate product development to ensure quality products reach the customers. Operations management aided opening new networks for conveying products. This ensured success because the products moved to different regions within a short time (Gupta et al. 440). The company attained considerable revenue culminating from these efforts. The company efforts to merge with other designers were profitable. It produced unique designs because of strengthened status resulting from collaborations with other designers. Product

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Identify strategic success factors for Infosys Tech Consulting & how Essay

Identify strategic success factors for Infosys Tech Consulting & how these conform to B2B marketing theories or concepts - Essay Example As such, the company is focused on empowering its clients to become more competitive and profitable. However, it is worth noting that the company has risen to command great success in the global market within the IT and consulting industry. This paper therefore is focused on evaluating on the strategic factors that have to the great success that the company enjoys. Special attention will be focused on the company’s business model, products/service branding, business relations, business segmentation as well as business internal organization (Mantrala, Sridhar and Xiaodan 2012, P. 169-174). The practices of maintaining adopted effective technological advancement in the current generation does not warrant success in business operations. On the contrary, the capacity for a trading company to keep in pace with the evolving and new developments in technology and IT services would be considered prerequisite to success in trade within the 21st century. The Infosys Tech Consulting has adopted this policy where it has adopted business perspective of operations as against the perspective of technical solution. The company prides in capacity to deliver results and the success is built on key priorities, which are technology, customer value, commitment, industrial alliance as well as technical expertise among others. Technology is viewed as an enabler as against the driver in the operations of the company. The company gives priority to understanding the clients’ needs and thus prioritizes in adding value to the client’s businesses. The company adopts robust methodologies as are most suitable in suiting client cultures as well as requirements. Besides, the company runs under a commitment to developing and maintaining long-term relations with the clients. Moreover, the company enjoys long term experience in the industry hence has outstanding technical expertise to design and formulate effective solutions suitable to the needs of their clients. The company

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

HRM, Strategy and Performance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

HRM, Strategy and Performance - Essay Example inciples, the term personnel management do not reflects the entire functions of the personnel department and name personnel management changed to human resource management at present. Globalization and liberalization brought many changes in the business world and internationalization of business through outsourcing and offshoring are common nowadays. In any case, it is a fact that the interaction between employees of different culture has increased a lot in the current business word. Most of the big organizations are currently keen in keeping a diverse workforce in their workplaces because of different reasons. Managing a diverse workforce at the workplace is a complex task because of the huge differences in the requirements of the diverse employees. The performance of an organization depends heavily on the success of managing the employees at the workplace. In short, human resource management can make or break an organization. This paper briefly analyses the HRM topics in general and the topics related to HRM like the meaning of HRM, business and corporate strategies, stakeholders, corporate responsibility and diversity, international and comparative HRM, HRM an d Performance etc in particular. Human Resource Management or HRM can be defined in simple words as the process of employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement. HRM’s responsibility include hiring of the people, developing their resources through training, utilizing them by placing them in appropriate places and sustaining their services with respect to needs of the organization. In other words, HRM has two important functions; one with respect to the organizational needs and the other related to the individual needs of the employees. In short, HR department acts as the bridge between the organization and the employees. The needs of the organization and the needs of the employees may not go in

Literatue proposal Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Literatue - Research Proposal Example Dandyism became confined to a marginalized subset of men who were loathe to give up their subverting performance of gender and beauty; it re-emerged as a central part of society from 1830, with Balzac's Treatise of Elegant Living, and peaked towards the end of the century with such figures as Oscar Wilde. So what was British dandyism in this transitory phase from 1790 to 1830? This essay will look at Garelick's Rising Star, Cole's â€Å"The Aristocrat in the Mirror†, and the Whartons' The Wits and Beaux of Society to understand the dandy's place in early-nineteenth-century society. This proposal will briefly describe the uses of each of these texts before going on to suggest more potential sources. Rising Star: Dandyism, Gender and Performance in the Fin de Siecle was written by Rhonda K. Garelick in 1998, and focuses on the aspects of dandyism which have flourished into one of the themes of twenty-first century celebrity. In her introduction she recognizes dandies as â€Å"s exually ambiguous† (3) and â€Å"double-sex beings† (5), in a manner which implies that dandyism was threatened by the very existence of womanhood.